Hospitals and Health Care Facilities

Unlike most other types of employment arrangements involving physicians, physicians acting as a medical director are compensated purely for the performance of administrative services related to patient care services. That is not to say that a medical director does not play a crucial role in the operation of a health care provider. In fact, the New York State Department of Health recommends, or even requires, medical directors be put in place for certain types of providers, and federal law similarly requires medical directors for certain types of services and facilities.

 

Because medical directors are not performing medical services, many physicians feel comfortable entering into medical directorship with little or no written documentation. However, physicians should proceed with caution when undertaking a medical director role. In particular, medical director arrangements are often scrutinized by the Office of the Inspector General (“OIG”) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to determine whether the arrangement is, in reality, being used as a vehicle to provide remuneration to physicians for patient referrals. For this reason, where the contracting provider participates with federal payors and the physician may refer patients to the contracting provider, the physician should enter into a written medical director agreement that is structured to fall within an exception (or safe harbor) to the federal Stark and anti-kickback statutes.

Most often, the exception used under both Stark and anti-kickback laws will be the “personal services” safe harbor. Although slightly different under each statute, some key elements in complying with the “personal services” safe harbor are as follows:

 

  • Written Agreement: The agreement between the physician and the provider should be in writing, with a term of not less than one year. [1]
  • Duties: The agreement should provide for all of the services which the physician is expected to perform.[2]
  • Commercially Reasonable: The services provided by the medical director should be necessary to the provider and not exceed the amount of services required by the provider. This analysis is focused not only on whether the contracting physician’s services in and of themselves are necessary, but also whether there are other medical directors and whether numerous medical directors are performing duplicative services.[3]
  • Compensation: [4]
    • Fair Market Value – The physician should be paid fair market value for the services provided. To this end, it might be helpful to obtain a fair market value analysis, taking into account the geographic location, the experience of the physician, the certification of the physician, and they type of facility. While having such an analysis is not an absolute defense in an investigation, it is useful to demonstrate that fair market value was analyzed and that the remuneration falls within what was believed to be an acceptable range.
    • Hourly Rate – It is recommended that the medical director be paid on an hourly basis, with such hourly rate being paid at the fair market value rate.
    • Cap on Compensation – it is also recommended that the aggregate compensation a physician can earn for his documented hours be capped, to further ensure reasonableness.[5]
  • Documentation: The physician should keep daily time logs of services performed and the time spent on each service. This shows that the physician is performing real work, for which he or she is being paid fair market value, and also can be used to demonstrate that the services being performed are necessary for the facility.

While it is always best to consult with an experienced professional before entering into medical director arrangement, adhering to the criteria set forth above can offer protection for both the physician and the facility.

[1] 42 CFR 1001.952(d)(1): “The agency agreement is set out in writing and signed by the parties.” 42 CFR 1001.952(d)(4): “The term of the agreement is for not less than one year.” 42 U.S.C. 1395nn(e)(3)(A)(i): “the arrangement is set out in writing, signed by the parties, and specifies the services covered by the arrangement.” 42 U.S.C. 1395nn(e)(3)(A)(iv): “the term of the arrangement is for at least 1 year.”

[2] 42 CFR 1001.952(d)(2): “The agency agreement covers all of the services the agent provides to the principal for the term of the agreement and specifies the services to be provided by the agent.” 42 U.S.C. 1395nn(e)(3)(A)(ii): “the arrangement covers all of the services to be provided by the physician.”

[3] 42 U.S.C. 1395nn(e)(3)(A)(iii): “the aggregate services contracted for do not exceed those that are reasonable and necessary for the legitimate business purposes of the arrangement.”

[4] 42 CFR 1001.952(d)(5): “The aggregate compensation paid to the agent over the term of the agreement is set in advance, is consistent with fair market value in arms-length transactions and is not determined in a manner that takes into account the volume or value of any referrals or business otherwise generated between the parties for which payment may be made in whole or in part under Medicare, Medicaid or other Federal health care programs.” 42 U.S.C. 1395nn(e)(3)(A)(v): “the compensation to be paid over the term of the arrangement is set in advance, does not exceed fair market value, and . . . is not determined in a manner that takes into account the volume or value of any referrals of other business generated between the parties.”

[5] In OIG Advisory Opinion No. 01-17 (2001), the OIG said that even though total aggregate compensation over the contract has not be set in advance, the totality of facts and circumstances in the specific circumstances at hand yield a conclusion that there is no significant increase in risk of fraud and abuse – however, this finding was likely due to the presence of a monthly payment cap. In 2003, in Advisory Opinion 03-8, the OIG found that a proposed arrangement does not qualify for protection under the safe harbor because the aggregate compensation paid under a management agreement would not be set in advance.

This post marks the end of our series on recent activity by the New York State Legislature in the health sector (introduced here), and follows posts on legislation impacting the pharmaceutical industry (here), hospitals (here), long term care and aging (here), behavioral health (here), and intellectual/developmental disability services (here).  As the last entry in the series, it serves as a bit of a catch-all for significant bills that have not been included in previous posts.  We have brought those bills together under the rubric of “public health.”

The challenges tackled by the Legislature in this space were wide and varied.  As is typical of public health legislation year after year, the bills largely focus on restricting unhealthy behaviors, shifting the cost of screening and prevention, deploying resources more efficiently and effectively, and educating the public and healthcare providers on the State’s various existing and newly created public health programs.  The following public health bills passed both houses of the Legislature and were either already signed into law (where noted) or currently await the Governor’s signature (more information on the legislative process can be found here).

Living Donor Protection Act (A297C Assemblymember Gunther /  S2496B Senator Hannon):  This bill, entitled the “Living Donor Protection Act of 2018” (the “Act”), seeks to encourage live organ donation, protect those who choose to donate their organs from insurance discrimination and provide paid family leave benefits to organ donors.  The Commissioner of Health, in cooperation with the Transplant Council and other interested parties, would be tasked with developing and distributing (online and in paper format) informational material expressing the benefits of live organ and tissue donation, including the impact on the donor’s access to insurance and assistance, the available state and federal tax credits for live organ donors, and the protections and benefits granted pursuant to the Act.

With respect to discrimination by insurers, the bill would make it unlawful for insurers who are authorized to provide life, accident, or health insurance to discriminate against a live organ donor by: declining or limiting insurance coverage under any life or accident and health insurance policy; or in the premium rating offering, issuance cancellation, amount of coverage or any other condition based solely on the donor’s status; or from precluding or preventing any individual from donating all or part of an organ or tissue as a condition of receiving or continuing to receive life or accident and health insurance coverage.

The bill further amends § 201(18) of the Workers Compensation Law to include transplantation and recovery from surgery related to organ or tissue donation one of the “serious health conditions” covered under paid family leave.

Smoking in Private Homes Licensed for Child Care (A397B Assemblymember Gunther / S7522-A Hannon):  This bill takes aim at reducing the harmful effects of “third hand smoke” – “residual contamination from cigarette smoke toxicants that can linger on surfaces” on children.  The bill would prohibit smoking at all times in private homes that are required to be licensed or registered for child care services, including but not limited to, registered, certified or licensed care in family day care homes, group family day care homes, school-age child care programs; head start programs, day care centers; child care which may be provided without a permit, certificate or registration in accordance with this statute; early childhood education programs approved by the state education department; and care provided in a children’s camp, regardless of whether or not children receiving such services are present.

Smoking Near Public Libraries (S169B Senator Rivera / A330-B Assemblymember Dinowitz):  This bill prohibits smoking within 100 feet of an entrance or exit of a public or association library (as defined in § 253(2) of the Education Law); unless such area falls within the boundaries of a private home or property, in which case, the prohibition shall not apply within the boundaries of such home or property.   

Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes to Minors (S1223 Senator Akshar / A8014 Assemblymember Rosenthal):  This bill prohibits the distribution of free electronic cigarettes to persons who appear to be less than 25 years old without first demanding proof of identification establishing the recipient is at least 18 years old.  This legislation was signed by the Governor on April 18, 2018, and became effective immediately.

Use of Tanning Facilities by Minors (A7218A Assemblymember Jaffee / S5585-A Senator Boyle):  Citing evidence that the use of tanning booths before the age of 35 increases the risk of melanoma by 59%, squamous cell carcinoma by 67% and basal cell carcinoma by 29%, the Legislature passed this bill to prohibit minors from using indoor tanning facilities, and eliminate the procedures under § 3555(2) of the Public Health Law that currently allow 16 and 17 year olds to access tanning facilities where the facility witnesses a parent or guardian sign a consent form in person at the facility.

Prostate Cancer Screening (S6882A Senator Tedisco / A8683A Assemblymember Gottfried):  This bill seeks to eliminate barriers to prostate cancer screening by providing diagnostic screening at no cost to certain populations of men considered to be at risk, and would require the Commissioner of Health to develop and distribute information about these no-cost screenings.  More specifically, the bill requires insurance companies to provide diagnostic testing for prostate cancer at no cost to men with a prior history of prostate cancer, to those men who are over 40 with a family history of prostate cancer, and men 50 and over who are asymptomatic.  A similar measure was passed in 2015 regarding women’s access to breast cancer screening.

Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Work Group (S7170A Senator Serino / A8900-A Assemblymember Hunter):  This bill would create a Lyme and Tick-Borne Disease Work Group under the auspices of the Executive.  The work group will be made up of the Commissioners of the Department of Health, the Office of Mental Health, and the Department of Environmental Conservation, the Superintendent of Financial Services, six additional members to be appointed by the Governor at his sole discretion, and eight additional members on the recommendation of the Legislature (three by the Temporary President of the Senate, three by the Speaker of the Assembly, and one each by the Senate and Assembly Minority leaders).  The membership of the work group must include an infectious disease specialist, general practitioner, mental health practitioner, entomologist, epidemiologist, health insurance representative, and a representative of a tick-borne disease advocacy organization; all of whom must have prior experience working with tick-borne illness.

The work group would be required to meet at least bi-annually, and shall have the following powers and responsibilities:

  • Review  current  best  practices for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Lyme and tick-borne diseases, as well as  any  reports  or recommendations  from  the  Twenty-first  Century Work Group for Disease Elimination and Reduction, which is charged with  reviewing existing vaccines, international research and development for vaccines, as well as health threats which could be addressed by the development of vaccines;
  • Provide recommendations including, but not limited to:
    • Improvements to the delivery of care for patients and suspected patients of Lyme and tick-borne diseases, particularly those from endemic areas of the state;
    • Collaborations among county departments of health to promote effective  strategies to combat Lyme and tick-borne diseases, including best practices for prevention and reporting;
    • Collaborate with other agencies to streamline state efforts to combat the spread of Lyme and tick-borne diseases;
    • Identifying opportunities to collaborate with the federal government, non-profit entities, or private organizations on projects addressing these diseases;
    • Data collection and reporting requirements of Lyme and tick-borne disease, including but not limited to those for healthcare providers; and
    • Any other regulations or guidelines concerning Lyme and tick-borne diseases.

The work group would be required to submit a report detailing its findings and recommendations to the Governor and Legislature by May 1, 2019.

Lupus Education (A2788B Assemblymember Peoples-Stokes / S5489-B Senator Parker):  This bill would establish the Lupus Education and Prevention Fund, and would allow the fund to be financed by optional contributions through a taxpayer check-off on New York State corporate and personal income tax forms.

Lymphedema Education (A8819B Assemblymember Rosenthal L / S7765-B Senator Golden):  The Legislature has expressed concern that despite the fact that lymphedema afflicts 10 million people in the United States, the disease is relatively unknown – even among medical providers.  Accordingly, this bill would require every hospital or general hospital to distribute information to patients at high risk of developing lymphedema.  The information will assist patients to understand and identify the signs and symptoms of lymphedema and provide instructions on how to seek appropriate care.

The bill defines high risk patients as those with:

    • Any significant injury to soft tissue that could reasonably be expected to compromise or cause to be ineffective the drainage of the lymphatic system;
    • Recurrent or persistent bacterial infections that could reasonably be expected to compromise or cause to be ineffective the drainage of the lymphatic system; or
    • Have had corrective surgical procedures performed that may have interfered with the lymph drainage by severing local lymphatics in a manner that may jeopardize reconstitution and recovery of lymph drainage.

Lead Poisoning (S7295 Senator Alcantara / A8992 Assemblymember Dinowitz):  Section § 1373 of the Public Health Law permits the Commissioner of Health to designate any geographic area within the State as having a high risk of lead contamination, and upon written notice, may demand that lead abatement be conducted on any building within such area within a specified time period.  This bill amends § 1373 to also allow the Commissioner of Health to “take enforcement action as deemed appropriate by the Commissioner or his or her representative” in the event that such abatement is not undertaken.  Formal action may include a formal hearing and/or penalties not to exceed $500.  This bill was signed by the Governor on April 18, 2018.

Testing for Cytomegalovirus in Newborns (A587C Assemblymember Rosenthal / S2816-B Senator Hannon):  Cytomegalovirus is four times more prevalent than Zika virus in the United States and is the leading non-genetic cause of deafness in children.  Parents infected with the disease may not show any signs or symptoms, making it difficult to prevent the passing of this infection to their newborn babies.  This bill seeks to prevent the spread of this virus by educating pregnant women regarding the manner in which the disease is transmitted, and promote earlier detection of the disease in infants by requiring infants suspected of having hearing impairment to undergo a urine polymerase chain reaction test, unless the parent objects.

New Born Safe Sleep Study (S7408 Senator Hannon / A8957 Assemblymember Simotas):  This bill makes technical amendments to Chapter 401 of the Laws of 2017, which established the Newborn Health and Safe Sleep Pilot Program under the Department of Health (DOH).  This pilot program would have required the Department of Health to provide baby sleeping boxes in areas of NYS with high infant mortality rates or poor birth outcomes.  However, the 2018 bill instead amends § 2508 of the Public Health Law to require the Department of Health, in consultation with health care providers, hospitals, safe sleep product manufacturers, provider groups, the New York State Office of Children and Family Services, and other interested parties to conduct a study on the effectiveness of existing safe sleep practices that reduce infant mortality rates, as well as review baby boxes and other products designed to encourage safe and healthy sleeping among infants.  The Department will be required to utilize the study to conduct a pilot program aimed at improving caregiver education and continued safe sleep practices in counties or areas with high infant mortality rates, and to pursue public private partnerships and funding opportunities to obtain donations for these purposes.  This legislation was signed into law by the Governor on April 18, 2018.

Blood Drive Support (A2381 Assemblymember Gottfried / S2701 Senator Parker):  This bill would authorize the Commissioner of Health to issue grants to not-for-profits and elementary, secondary and post-secondary schools to help pay for the costs of conducting local blood drives.  This legislation was also passed by the Legislature in 2015 but was vetoed by the Governor due to the “increased and unbudgeted costs” the measure would inflict on the Department of Health.  This version of this bill is exactly the same as the prior version.

Physical Fitness Education Campaign (A4426 Assemblymember Cusick / S8716 Senator Sepulveda):  In an attempt to reduce the public health costs associated with obesity and obesity related illness (estimated to be $117 billion annually nationwide), this bill would create the New York Physical Fitness and Activity Education Campaign to increase awareness regarding the health and economic problems associated with obesity and to promote recreational and physical fitness activities within the State.  The Campaign would utilize social and mass media, including the internet, radio, and print advertising and recruit public ambassadors to promote the message, including professional and amateur athletes, fitness experts, and celebrities.  The Campaign would focus on seniors, youth, and other populations at high-risk for obesity.

Emerging Contaminant Education (S6655 Senator Hannon / A10927 Assemblymember Gottfried):  As part of the 2017-18 Enacted Budget, the Department of Health was instructed to create certain information and educational materials related to emerging contaminates and notification levels for emerging contaminants within the public water system.  Emerging contaminants are defined as any physical, chemical, microbiological or radiological substance listed as an emerging contaminant pursuant to §1112 (3) (c) of the Public Health Law.  The current list of contaminants includes: 1,4-dioxane, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid.  This bill would build on the former educational material requirements to direct the Department to post this information on their website so it is easily accessible to the public and public water systems.

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If you have any questions concerning the foregoing legislation, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

Our series highlighting recent activity by the NYS Legislature continues with a recap of bills passed in 2018 that relate to behavioral health. This synopsis follows previous summaries we have done concerning pharmacy (here), hospitals (here), long term care and aging (here).

Except where otherwise noted, these bills await action by the Governor.

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Parity Report (A3694-C by Assemblymember Gunther / S1156-C by Senator Ortt):  This legislation would establish the Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Parity Report Act, which, beginning September 1, 2019,  would require the Department of Financial Services (DFS) to include in the annual Consumer Guide to Health Insurers (here) information concerning insurers’ and health plans’ compliance with NYS and federal requirements for the provision of mental health and substance use disorder treatment.

Insurers and plans would be required to annually provide the DFS and Department of Health (DOH) all of the information necessary to prepare the report, including:

  • Rates of utilization review for mental health and substance use disorder (SUD) claims as compared to medical and surgical claims, including the rates of approval and denial, categorized by benefits provided by the following classifications: inpatient in-network, inpatient out-of-network, outpatient in-network, outpatient out-of-network, emergency care, and prescription drugs;
  • The number of prior or concurrent authorization requests for mental health and SUD services and the number of denials, compared with similar authorization requests for medical and surgical services, categorized by the same classifications noted above;
  • Rates of appeals, adverse determinations, adverse determinations upheld and overturned for mental health and SUD services, as well as such rates for medical and surgical claims;
  • The percentage of claims paid for in-network and out-of-network mental health and SUD services compared with in-network and out-of-network medical and surgical services;
  • The number of behavioral health advocates or staff that are available to assist policyholders with mental health and SUD benefits, pursuant to an agreement with the Attorney General’s office;
  • A comparison of cost sharing requirements, co-payments, co-insurance, and benefit limitations between mental health and SUD services and medical and surgical services;
  • The number and type of providers licensed in NYS that provide mental health and SUD services in-network and the number of providers that are out-of-network;
  • The percentage of providers of services for mental health and SUD who remained participating providers; and
  • Any other information DFS determines necessary to track mental health and SUD parity, including but not limited to an evaluation of: the company’s in-network mental health and SUD provider panels and reimbursement practices for in-network and out-of network services compared with those of medical and surgical services.

Discharge Planning for Individuals with Mental Health Disorder (A10644 by Assemblymember Gunther / S8769 by Senator Ortt):  This legislation would require the Office of Mental Health (OMH), in conjunction with DOH, to develop guidance and educational materials regarding effective discharge planning for individuals with a mental health disorder.  Information will be provided to hospitals across NY and would also be provided to individuals with a documented mental health disorder or those who appear be at risk for a mental health disorder during the discharge planning process.  This legislation was previously highlighted in our post on legislation affecting hospitals (here).

Maternal Depression Treatment (A8953 by Assemblymember Richardson / S7409 by Senator Krueger):  This legislation makes technical amendments to Chapter 463 of 2017 (S4000/A8398), which would have required DOH, in collaboration with the OMH, to compile and maintain a list of providers who treat maternal depression, and ensure adequate investment in treatment resources, including a statewide hotline, peer support, adequate referral networks and telehealth or telemedicine services.  This bill amends that law to instead require DOH, in consultation with OMH, to simply “inform providers of the need to raise awareness and work to address maternal depression,” and to provide information on their websites to assist people in locating mental health professionals, other licensed professionals, peer support, not-for-profit corporations and other community resources that treat or provide support for maternal depression.  The bill was signed by the Governor on June 1, 2018.

Mental Health and Home Care Collaboration (A10938 by Assemblymember Gunther / S8632 by Senator Ortt):  This legislation would allow the existing Geriatric Service Demonstration Program, which provides grants to providers of mental health care to the elderly (here) to foster and support collaboration between mental health providers and home care services, including certified home health agencies and licensed home care service agencies.  It is intended to help promote integrated physical and mental health care services in NYS communities for individuals with co-occurring physical and mental health needs.

Tick-Borne Disease Study (A9019-A by Assemblymember Gunther / S7171-A by Senator Serino):  This legislation would require DOH, in conjunction with OMH, to conduct a tick-borne diseases and blood-borne pathogen impact study to examine their impact on  mental illness rates in endemic areas of the state.  This report would be due by October 1, 2019 and would detail:

  • Considerations on how Lyme, tick-borne illnesses and other blood-borne pathogens or vector-borne diseases may have correlations with mental illness in infected individuals;
  • Populations at risk, including individuals that work outside or that have elevated exposure risks;
  • Diagnostic indicators of mental illness that can be used as guidance for health and mental health providers;
  • Historical considerations of infection rates and mental illness indicators that may have gone undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in endemic areas; and,
  • Recommendations for intervention and coordinated care for individuals who exhibit mental illness symptoms and also have physical health indicators.

Effects of Trauma on Child Development (A10063-B by Assemblymember Joyner / S8000-B by Senator Bailey):  This legislation would require the Commissioner of Education to conduct a study on the effects of trauma on child development and learning.  The study would include, but not be limited to, the following information:

  • The types of trauma experienced by students;
  • The impacts of trauma on child development and learning;
  • Screening and assessments of trauma available in schools;
  • Programs, interventions, and services related to trauma available in schools; and
  • Best practices for school personnel in the area of trauma as it relates to child development and learning.

The State Education Department (SED) would be required to submit its findings and recommendations to the Governor and NYS Legislature within one year.

Suicide Prevention Education (A3210-A by Assemblymember Ortiz / S5860-A by Senator Ritchie):  This legislation would require OMH, in consultation with SED, to develop and publish educational materials regarding suicide prevention measures and signs of depression among students in  NYS universities, community colleges, and city universities.  Such educational materials would include, but not be limited to:

  • Information regarding symptoms of depression;
  • How depression manifests itself in different cultures;
  • Warning signs of suicide;
  • Actions to take once a student is identified at risk of suicide; and
  • A list of educational websites regarding suicide and students attending university or college.

These educational materials would be available to faculty and staff in these educational institutions via the OMH website and by any other means OMH deems appropriate, within 90 days after it is signed into law.

Adolescent Suicide Prevention (A8961 by Assemblymember De La Rosa / S7322 by Senator Alcantara):  This legislation makes technical amendments to Chapter 436 of 2017 (S5500-C/ A7225-B), which would have established a nine-member Adolescent Suicide Prevention Advisory Council to facilitate the coordination of adolescent suicide prevention services.  As outlined in the Governor’s 2017 approval memo, the bill presented implementation challenges.  The current bill would repeal the prior bill and instead require OMH to assure the development of plans, programs, and services in the research and prevention of suicide, to reduce suicidal behavior and deaths through consultation, training, implementation of evidence-based practices, and use of suicide surveillance data.  OMH would develop such plans, programs, and services in cooperation with other agencies and departments in NYS, local governments, community organizations, entities, and individuals.  OMH would also consider the impact of differing demographic groups, gender, race and ethnicity, cultural and language needs.

Substance Use Education (A7470 by Assemblymebmer Davila / S8318 by Senator Comrie):   This legislation would require the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS), in consultation with SED, to develop educational materials to be provided to school districts and boards of cooperative educational services for use in any drug and alcohol related curriculum regarding the misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, prescription medication and other drugs.  These materials would be age appropriate, and to the extent practicable, include information for parents to identify the warning signs and to address the risks of substance abuse.

Additionally, the bill would require the Superintendent of each school district, in consultation with the related district superintendent of a board of cooperative educational services, to designate a member of the school district’s staff or an employee to provide information to any student, parent, or staff regarding available substance use related services.  Where practicable, this individual should be a school social worker, school guidance counselor, or any other health practitioner or counselor employed by the school.  These designated individuals will be required to undergo any necessary training required by OASAS.  Information received by designated individuals would be kept confidential, however, nothing would relieve them of any legal duty to otherwise report such information.

Substance Abuse Disorder Referrals (A7689-A by Assemblymember Rosenthal / S6544-B by Senator Akshar):  This legislation would prohibit any SUD provider from intentionally soliciting, receiving, accepting or agreeing to receive payment, benefit, or any other consideration to induce the referral of a potential patient for SUD services.  This legislation does not prohibit:

  • Lawful payments by a health maintenance organization or health insurer acting on behalf of their enrollees for such SUD services or benefits to be provided;
  • Lawful payments to or by a provider to a health maintenance organization or health insurer as payment for services provided, a refund for an overpayment, a participating provider fee, or any similar remuneration;
  • Payment for an activity that, at the time of such activity, would have been lawful as specifically exempt, or otherwise not prohibited under any federal statute or regulations, including but not limited to 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b, or the regulations promulgated thereafter if conducted by a person, firm, partnership, group, practice, association, fiduciary, employer representative or any other entity providing SUD services;
  • Any employee or representative of a provider conducting marketing activities, where the employee or representative identifies the provider represented for whom the employee works, identifies themselves as a marketer and not a clinician or individual who can provide diagnostic, counseling or assessment services;
  • Commissions, fees or other remuneration lawfully paid to insurance agents as provided under the Insurance Law.

Providers who intentionally violate these provisions would be guilty of a misdemeanor as defined under the Penal Law.

OASAS Provider Directory (A8151 by Assemblymember Rosenthal / S8552 by Senator Golden):  This legislation would require OASAS to maintain a directory of all providers and programs operated, licensed, or certified on their website.  The searchable directory would include the following information:

  • Location(s) of each provider or program;
  • Contact information for each provider or program;
  • Services offered by each provider or program at each location of the provider or program, as well as which medications are available at any medication-assisted treatment provider;
  • Special populations served;
  • Insurance accepted;
  • Availability of beds and services; and
  • Any other information OASAS deems appropriate.

Medical Marihuana as Alternate Treatment for Substance Use Disorder (A11011B Rules, Assemblymember Gottfried / S8987-A by Senator Amedore):  As we previously reported in another blog post, this legislation would help provide alternative treatment options for pain management and substance use disorder by including “pain that degrades health and functional capability where the use of medical marihuana is an alternative to opioid use” and “substance use disorder” to the list of qualifying conditions for patients to access medical marihuana.

Notice of Service Reductions at State-Operated Hospitals (A9563-A by Assemblymember Gunther / S7207 by Senator Ortt):  This legislation amends the notice requirements to local governments, community organizations and other interested parties regarding the potential for significant service reductions at state-operated hospitals.  The bill would require notice of closure or significant service reductions at state operated hospitals and state operated research institutes be a maximum length of twenty-four months prior to commencing such service reduction.  This legislation is intended to allow appropriate planning to take place and ensure a thoughtful transition plan is developed for all affected stakeholders.

Continuing Education for Psychologists (A9072-A by Assemblymember Fahy / S7398-A by Senator Valesky):  This legislation would require psychologists to obtain a minimum of 36 hours of mandatory continuing education, including 9 hours of professional ethics, every 3 years.

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For additional information on any of the foregoing bills, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

 

 

The latest installation in our series on legislation recently passed by the New York State Legislature (introduced here) addresses legislation in the long term care and aging space.  It follows upon descriptions of legislation in the pharmacy space (here) and hospital space (here).  Like those areas, the long term care area was impacted by the same political turmoil that limited the number of bills passed – but some significant legislation was enacted nonetheless.

One of the more interesting aspects of the long term care and aging space is that it tends to be comprised of two very different regulatory regimes.  The first, primarily overseen by the Department of Health (DOH), regulates licensed long term healthcare providers like nursing homes, assisted living residences, home care and others.  The second, overseen by the State Office for the Aging (SOFA), focuses on the elderly more generally.  Sometimes, it can seem like these two agencies occupy two entirely different worlds; other times, they coordinate comprehensively and effectively.  Bills passed this year by the Legislature affect both agencies.

Except where otherwise indicated, these bills all await action by the Governor.

Assisted Living Programs and Hospice (A10459-A by Assemblymember Lupardo/S8353-A by Senator Hannon):  Continuing the State’s recent focus on expansion of assisted living program services (see our post on long term care provisions in the State Budget, here), this bill would allow hospice services to be delivered to individuals residing in assisted living programs.  Current Medicaid policy does not allow the delivery of hospice services in an assisted living program, requiring many residents to transfer to a nursing home in their last few weeks of life, compounding the issues they already face at the end of their lives.

Adult Care Facility Temporary Operators (A8159 by Assemblymember Wright/S766 by Senator Stewart-Cousins):  This bill would require the DOH to provide written notice when a temporary operator is appointed at any adult home, enriched housing program, residence for adults or assisted living program.  Temporary operators are entities appointed by DOH to operate a facility where an operator’s license has been suspended.

Deaths in Adult Care Facilities (A9034 by Assemblyman Gottfried/S7282 by Senator Alcantara):  This bill is a chapter amendment (see discussion of chapter amendments in our introductory post here) to Chapter 459 of the Laws of 2017, which added enriched housing programs to the list of adult care facilities that must report the death or attempted suicide of a resident or any felony committed against a resident to DOH, and to the Justice Center for the Protection of People with Special Needs, if they are receiving mental hygiene services.  That bill also reduced the time within which facilities must make such a report from 48 to 24 hours.  This bill eliminates the statutory time period in which a report must be made.  The bill was signed by the Governor on June 1, 2018.

Long Term Care Ombudsman (A11050 by Assemblymember Lupardo/S9002 by Senator Dilan):  This bill would make various changes to bring the provisions of state law establishing the Long Term Care Ombudsman Program (LTCOP) in line with federal statute and regulations.  The LTCOP investigates and resolves complaints made by or on behalf of residents, promotes the development of resident and family councils, and informs government agencies, providers and the general public about issues and concerns impacting residents of long term care facilities.  The bill would clarify (1) the structure of the LTCOP and the relationship between the LTCOP and the SOFA; (2) the required qualifications of the state ombudsman and assistant ombudsmen; (3) the state ombudsman’s duty to refer complaints to appropriate investigative agencies; (4) the state ombudsman’s duty to comment on actions pertaining to the health, safety, welfare, and rights of the residents of long term care facilities and services; (5) the state ombudsman’s duty to provide timely access to LTCOP services; (6) the state ombudsman’s duty to recommend changes to law, regulation and policy; (7) the state ombudsman’s duty to develop a certification training program and continuing education for ombudsmen; (8) the state ombudsman’s duty to provide administrative and technical assistance to ombudsmen; (9) the state ombudsman’s duty to support citizen organizations, resident and family councils, and other statewide systems advocacy efforts; and (10) the state ombudsman’s duty to advise SOFA in regard to plans or contracts governing local ombudsman entity operations.  The bill requires the state ombudsman to develop a grievance process to offer an opportunity for reconsideration of any decision regarding the appointment of any local ombudsman, and any decision of an ombudsman.  The bill also clarifies (a) the records to which ombudsmen must have access and the limitations on the use and further disclosure of such records; (b) that ombudsmen must be granted access to and cooperation from long term care facilities, and facilities may not retaliate against anyone for cooperating with ombudsmen; and (c) the conflict of interest rules applicable to the LTCOP.

Informal Caregiver Best Practices (A3958 by Assemblymember Dinowitz/S8730 by Senator Sepulveda):  This bill would require SOFA to develop a guide for businesses containing best practices for retaining employees who are also informal caregivers (i.e., who care for elders at home), and make that guide available on the agency’s website or via paper copy.

Veterans in Nursing Homes (A9981-A by Assemblymember Wallace/S8968 by Senator Helming):  This bill would add “assisted living” (presumably assisted living programs), assisted living residences, and adult care facilities to the list of entities which may report to SOFA on the veteran status or veteran spouse status of residents, so that SOFA may link them to counselors for review and potential linkage to veteran services.  SOFA would be required to include the number of such reports within its annual report.

Locator Technology Businesses (A1118-A by Assemblymember Rosenthal/S5221-A by Senator Stavisky):  This bill would require DOH to develop a list of businesses that manufacture, distribute or otherwise offer locator technology services designed to assist in the expedited location of individuals afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia who become lost or disoriented.  DOH must make the list available to physicians and the general public.  “Locator technology” includes, e.g., wrist transmitter tracking systems, software programs, data bases and products like necklaces and bracelets that contain identifying information.

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For additional information on any of the foregoing bills, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

The scheduled 2018 New York State Legislative Session concluded last week amid many of the same speculations and controversies that have characterized all of the Legislature’s activities in recent years.  Once again, much of the activity turned on the Legislature’s tense relationship with the Governor, ongoing questions about control of the Senate, and a backdrop of corruption trials that continue to erode public confidence in State government.  This year, legislative activity was more constrained than usual, owing to the Senate’s inability to maintain a commanding majority on a consistent basis, which was attributable to the recent dissolution of the Independent Democratic Conference and the absence of one majority Senator serving in the United States Navy.  While the Senate was not entirely paralyzed, and at one point even accomplished a rare override of a gubernatorial veto, many legislative initiatives that were anticipated to move did not.

But even in this challenging year, many bills were passed in the health and mental hygiene space.  Examples include:

  •  Pharmacy:  The Legislature passed bills requiring manufacturers engaged in the manufacture of covered drugs sold in New York State to develop and operationalize a statewide pharmaceutical take back program, and authorizing the reclassification of controlled substances by regulation rather than by statute.
  •  Hospitals:  Legislation was passed that would require the Department of Health (DOH) to establish a sexual assault victim bill of rights, which hospitals must provide to every sexual offense victim presenting at the hospital.  Other legislation would authorize hospitals to establish standing orders for nurses caring for newborns, allow a nurse practitioner to witness and serve as a health care proxy, establish new standards for clinical laboratory supervision, and require the Office of Mental Health to supply educational materials to hospitals regarding discharge planning for individuals with mental health disorders.
  • Long Term Care:  Bills were passed related to virtually all aspects of the long term care continuum, including bills allowing residents of an assisted living program to access hospice services, requiring DOH to provide written notice to residents of adult care facilities when a temporary operator has been appointed, and clarifying the scope of the long term care ombudsman program.
  • Behavioral Health:  The Legislature approved bills related to maternal depression, the mental health impacts of tick-borne diseases, geriatric mental health services, and suicide prevention, among other mental health issues.  Bills passed in the substance use disorder space include a bill making it a crime for providers of substance abuse services to offer or accept kickbacks in exchange for patient referrals, a bill requiring the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services to provide information to school districts regarding the misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, prescription medication and other drugs, and a bill allowing the use of medical marijuana as an alternative to opioids.
  • Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities:  Bills passed in this space include bills to establish identification cards for individuals with developmental disabilities, to allow individuals with developmental disabilities to be accompanied by staff of the same gender when utilizing transportation, to require 85% of the proceeds from the sale of Office for People with Developmental Disabilities (OPWDD) property to be used for state-operated residential or community services, to prohibit OPWDD from changing the auspice of any individualized residential alternative that is operated by the state, and to study and improve outreach concerning autism spectrum disorder.
  • Public Health: A number of the bills passed this session did not deal with specific types of providers, but rather addressed more general public health concerns.  Among these bills were a bill prohibiting discrimination in the provision of insurance based on the fact that an insured is a living organ or tissue donor and authorizing family leave to provide care during transplant preparation and recovery, bills prohibiting smoking in private homes where licensed child care services are provided or within 100 feet of library entrances, further restricting minors’ access to tanning facilities, a bill restricting minors’ access to electronic cigarettes, and bills addressing prostate cancer, Lyme disease, lupus, lymphedema, and lead poisoning.

Each of the bills mentioned above, and many others, now await action by the Governor, and it remains possible that the Legislature will return this year – possibly even in the very near future – to act on additional priority legislation that could not be moved before the conclusion of the scheduled session.  Once a bill is passed by the Legislature, it can be sent to the Governor for action at any point prior to the end of the calendar year, and in practice the bills are sent in several batches over the remainder of the year.  The Governor and Legislature work together to coordinate the timing of those batches, to ensure that the Governor’s staff has adequate time to review each bill and brief the Governor on it.

Once a bill is sent, the Governor has ten days to either approve it or veto it (not including Sundays); if by some chance the Governor fails to act (a very rare occurrence), the bill becomes law.  The only exception to these rules occurs at the end of the year, when the Governor is given thirty days to act, and the failure to act constitutes a veto (the so-called “pocket veto”).

If he vetoes a bill, the Governor will produce a veto message explaining his position.  He may also provide an approval message explaining his position on bills he has approved.  Where a bill comes close to something that the Governor could approve, but the Governor does not want to approve it in its current form, it is not uncommon for the Governor to negotiate “chapter amendments” with the Legislature, pursuant to which the Governor agrees to sign the bill in return for a promise from the Senate and Assembly that they will pass additional legislation at the next available opportunity to amend the bill language to address the Governor’s concerns.

This article represents the first in a series that will review the key bills in each of the foregoing categories in more detail, including both the bills listed above and others.  At this time, in most cases it is impossible to say with certainty how the Governor will act on each bill, but where appropriate, we will provide our best guess.  In the meantime, if you have any questions concerning the foregoing, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

 

Earlier this month the New York State Department of Health released the first results of its recently adopted Medicaid redesign efforts, the Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (“DSRIP”), in four core areas: (1) metric performance, (2) success of projects, (3) total Medicaid spending and (4) managed care expenditures.   The passing scores stem from the collaborative efforts of the Performing Provider Systems comprised of New York hospitals, providers and other key stakeholders.

In April 2014, New York State and the federal government agreed to a DSRIP framework, pumping approximately $8 billion in state health care savings to target Medicaid reforms. The goal of the DSRIP waiver is to reduce patient hospital usage by 25% over 5 years while improving patient-centered care. The program includes $6.42 billion for DSRIP Planning Grants, Provider Incentive Payments, and administrative costs.

The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services did find, however, that New York still needs to show improvement in certain areas, including preventable hospital readmissions and emergency room visits as well as access to timely appointments.

Speaking on the results, Donna Frescatore, the New York State Medicaid Director, said “[a] passing grade on all four of the milestones proves that we are making monumental progress toward improving care for millions of New Yorkers….While we are on a clear path to success, our work is far from over. In the months and years ahead, we will shift our focus toward improving performance metrics and health outcomes as we work to change the culture of health care.”

Even though New York received passing scores on its first report card, the state must continue to demonstrate improvement going forward to avoid financial penalties associated with failing to meet the requisite benchmarks.  It will be interesting to see if New York meets the 25% hospital usage reduction by March 31, 2020, the date the DSRIP waiver ends.

The full report can be found here.

The New York State Department of Health (DOH), in consultation with the Department of Labor (DOL), recently announced a Request for Applications for the Health Workforce Retraining Initiative (HWRI).  This program was established pursuant to NYS Public Health Law §2807-g and is funded through the State’s Health Care Reform Act.  The 2018-19 Enacted New York State Budget included $9 million for this initiative and DOH anticipates an additional $9 million to be available for this grant in SFY 2019-20.

The DOH is soliciting applications from eligible organizations that seek to train or retrain health industry workers for new or emerging positions in the health care delivery system.  The purpose of this initiative is to:

  • Assist health care workers in the development of new skills to maintain employment and achieve licensing/certification requirements;
  • Enable health care workers to pursue new career opportunities created due to market changes, new employment for displaced health care workers and those at risk of displacement;
  • Provide health care workers with the education and training necessary to utilize emerging health technologies and data analytics to support population health management and delivery of high quality, cost effective care;
  • Address current and future occupational shortages;
  • Provide expertise to support integrated and interdisciplinary team-based care;
  • Meet increased demand for home and community-based long-term care services; and
  • Ensure health care workers can effectuate appropriate care transitions, reduce avoidable hospital readmissions and emergency room visits.

Funding is based on the total amount available in each region and will be awarded on a competitive basis by project and region.  Interested organizations may submit up to 50 applications for multiple projects.  Below please find further information regarding the counties included in this initiative, as well as the amount of funding available per region.

Maximum Funding Levels by Region

Western

Rochester

Central

Utica/ Watertown

Northeastern

Northern Metropolitan

New York City

Long Island

Allegany

Livingston

Broome

Chenango

Albany

Columbia

Bronx

Nassau

Cattaraugus

Monroe

Cayuga

Franklin

Clinton

Delaware

Kings

Suffolk

Chautauqua

Ontario

Chemung

Hamilton

Essex

Dutchess

New York

Erie

Seneca

Cortland

Herkimer

Fulton

Orange

Queens

Genesee

Wayne

Schuyler

Jefferson

Greene

Putnam

Richmond

Niagara

Yates

Steuben

Lewis

Montgomery

Rockland

Orleans

Tioga

Madison

Rensselaer

Sullivan

Wyoming

Tompkins

Oneida

Saratoga

Ulster

Onondaga

Otsego

Schenectady

Westchester

Oswego

Schoharie

St.

Warren

Lawrence

Washington

$526,458

$1,045,833

$561,481

$66,643

$483,425

$861,535

$12,866,527

$1,908,098

Maximum Regional Funding Amounts

$67,784

$135,110

$73,280

$8,015

$63,662

$109,920

$1,588,115

$244,114

The following organizations may apply for funding under this initiative:

  • Health worker unions;
  • General hospitals;
  • Long term care facilities;
  • Certified home health agencies, licensed home care services agencies, long term health care programs, hospices, ambulatory care facilities, diagnostic and treatment facilities;
  • Office of Mental Health or the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services licensed providers;
  • Health care facilities trade associations;
  • Labor-management committees;
  • Joint labor-management training funds established by the Federal Taft-Hartley Act; and
  • Educational institutions.

Additionally, applicants must:

  • Be a legally established organization located in NYS;
  • Have a minimum of two years of training experience with health care workers;
  • Be capable of entering into a master contract with DOH; and
  • Identify a need for training in one or more areas:
    • Occupations with known shortages;
    • Educational opportunities in shortage occupations;
    • Provide training to affected health care workers who have experienced or will likely experience job loss/displacement due to changes in health care delivery;
    • New job certification or licensing requirements; and
    • Knowledge and use of emerging technologies.

Applicants that are able to thoroughly demonstrate a need for such training will be given higher scores.  Additionally, preference points will be provided to projects that increase workforce supply in the following professions:

    • Clinical laboratory technologists;
    • Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses;
    • RN Care coordinators;
    • Certified Nursing Aides;
    • Nurse Practitioners and Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners;
    • Nurse Managers and Directors;
    • Physician Assistants;
    • Licensed Master Social Workers and Licensed Clinical Social Workers;
    • Minimum Data Set Coordinators;
    • Home Health Aides;
    • Emergency Technicians and Paramedics;
    • Physical Therapists;
    • Occupational Therapists; and
    • Diagnostic Medical Sonographers.

Applicants must also clearly demonstrate an ability to:

    • Develop and manage the structure necessary to implement proposed projects;
    • Develop project curriculum and select program participants within three months of contract execution;
    • Ensure assessment, training and placement services for proposed program participants;
    • Provide DOH with monthly or quarterly outcome and expenditure reports, as well as a two year final report; and
    • Cooperate with DOH and DOL during the program review process and provide supporting documentation regarding outcomes, expenditures and any other information required to evaluate programmatic progress.

Interested organizations must submit applications via the NYS Grants Gateway on or before June 22, 2018 by 4:00 pm.

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * * *

For additional information on this and other DOH initiatives, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

As we have discussed in an earlier blog post, the federal administrative agencies have been placing greater emphasis on being more transparent and promoting “interoperability”.

As such, on April 24, 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) proposed changes to its Inpatient Prospective Payment System and Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System to promote better access to patient electronic health information and increase pricing transparency. For example, while hospitals are already required to make pricing information publicly available, the proposed rules impose more stringent guidelines, including a requirement that hospitals post pricing information on the internet. Seema Verma, the CMS Administrator, stated “[t]oday’s proposed rule demonstrates our commitment to patient access to high quality care while removing outdated and redundant regulations on providers. We envision a system that rewards value over volume and where patients reap the benefits through more choices and better outcomes.”

Critical to the proposed changes is a complete overhaul of the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Records Incentive Programs, which is commonly known as the “Meaningful Use” program, by executing on the following core principles:

  1. Having a program that is more flexible and less burdensome;
  2. Placing greater emphasis and encouraging the exchange of health information between providers and patients; and
  3. Incentivizing providers to streamline the process for patients to be able to access their medical records electronically.

A rebranding would not be complete without, of course, a name change; in fact, CMS has proposed changing the “Meaningful Use” program to “Promoting Interoperability”. Interoperability, which means “the ability of computer systems or software to exchange and make use of information,” has been missing from the healthcare industry as technology has been advancing at an unprecedented rate. In a system where healthcare is central to our lives, it appears the final goal is to have a system where patients could have access to a virtual portal where all of their health information from various providers would be available, thus promoting patient-centered care where providers have greater insight into their patient’s medical history—invariably resulting in more thoughtful care. It is refreshing to see government, which is commonly known to always be a step behind private industry, taking the initiative to modernize its infrastructure. At this point in history a patient should be able to obtain his health information on a whim via his mobile device or even see a new physician while not having to deal with the administrative nightmares associated therewith.

While it is unclear if the final goal of “interoperability” will be reached, CMS’ proposed changes are definitely an encouraging step forward.

For more information, please see the CMS fact sheet.

 

 

 

The Broadest Impact:  2018-19 NYS Managed Care Budget Highlights

This, the last of our posts on the 2018-19 New York State Health Budget (the “Enacted Budget”), focuses on an area of healthcare that has perhaps the broadest impact of the sector as a whole — managed care.  A prior post in the series (here) discussed the central role that hospitals have traditionally played in healthcare reform efforts, but even they have less influence (at least, as a matter of policy) than managed care, which controls the funding that fuels virtually every other part of the healthcare system.  For purposes of this article, “managed care” really means Medicaid managed care in all its various guises, since that is the funding most directly controlled by the State – while the various forms of Medicare managed care (Medicare Advantage, Medicare Part D, etc.) and commercial managed care are important, and even critical, to the healthcare system in New York, they are generally not a focus of State budgeting (at least directly).  So this post will focus on the various forms of Medicaid managed care, including managed long term care (MLTC) that provide long term care services, fiscal intermediaries for consumer-directed consumer assistance, mainstream managed care plans that provide acute and primary care services, health homes that coordinate care for people with chronic illnesses, and others.  Note that one species of Medicaid managed care, Development Disabilities Individual Support and Care Coordination Organizations, are not addressed in this post, but were addressed in a prior one (here).

Just a quick word before examining the key provisions impacting managed care:  this series has not pretended to be a comprehensive analysis of all the healthcare provisions in the 2018-19 New York State Health Budget.  It has merely provided a survey of the highlights of certain key areas in the healthcare space.  Inevitably, some areas have not been directly addressed; particular ones that come to mind include primary care, professional practice, life science research and others.  In part, this was due to the lack of significant reforms in those areas; however, it was also true that the sectors we did address often included references to those other sectors.  Nowhere is this truer than in regard to managed care, which, as noted, touches on every other area of healthcare.  Key provisions in the managed care space are summarized below.

Managed Long Term Care & Fiscal Intermediaries

Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) Eligibility.  Since 2012, adults have been eligible for MLTC enrollment if they require community-based care for more than 120 days.  The Enacted Budget provides that, effective April 1, such individuals are only eligible if that 120 days is a continuous, not aggregate, period.

Changing MLTC Plans.  Effective October 1, 2018, the Enacted Budget allows MLTC enrollees to switch plans without cause anytime within 90 days of notification or the effective date of enrollment (whichever is later), but thereafter, the Department of Health (DOH) is authorized to prohibit changing plans more than once every 12 months, except for good cause.  “Good cause” includes poor quality of care, lack of access to covered services, and lack of access to providers “experienced in dealing with the enrollee’s care needs,” and may include other categories identified by the Commissioner of Health.

Nursing Home Resident Eligibility.  Effective April 1, 2018, the Enacted Budget provides that individuals who are permanently placed in a nursing home for a consecutive period of three months or more will not be eligible for MLTC, but instead will receive services on a fee-for-service basis.  In a side letter, DOH has promised to provide guidance highlighting information about an individual’s rights as a nursing home resident, nursing home and MLTC plan responsibilities, and supports for individuals who wish to return to the community.

Plan Mergers.  Effective April 1, 2018, surviving plans in a plan merger, acquisition or similar arrangement must submit a report to DOH within 12 months providing information about the enrollees transferred, a summary of which DOH will make available to the public.

Licensed Home Care Services Agency (LHCSA) Contracting.  As discussed in a prior post (here), beginning October 1, 2018, the Commissioner of Health may limit the number of LHCSAs with which an MLTC plan may contract, according to a formula tied to region, number of enrollees and timing (before or after October 1, 2019), with some exceptions.  In a side letter, DOH has indicated that it will issue guidance to assist both MLTC programs and LHCSAs in minimizing the disruption of care for Medicaid members and the impacted workforce from this initiative.

Fiscal Intermediary Advertising.  The Enacted Budget includes provisions that limit the advertising practices of fiscal intermediaries under the Consumer Directed Personal Assistance Program (CDPAP).  CDPAP provides chronically ill and/or physically disabled Medicaid enrollees receiving home care services with more flexibility and freedom of choice to obtain such services.  Fiscal intermediaries help consumers facilitate their role as employers by: providing wage and benefit processing for consumer directed personal assistants; processing income tax and other required wage withholdings; complying with workers’ compensation, disability and unemployment requirements; maintaining personnel records; ensuring health status of assistants prior to service delivery; maintaining records of service authorizations or reauthorizations; and monitoring the consumer’s/designated representative’s ability to fulfill the consumer’s responsibilities under the program (in this regard, they are not truly managed care, although there are some similarities).  The Enacted Budget prohibits false or misleading advertisements by fiscal intermediaries.  Furthermore, fiscal intermediaries are now required to submit proposed advertisements to DOH for review prior to distribution, and are not permitted to disseminate advisements without DOH approval.  The DOH is required to render its decision on proposed advertisements within 30 days.  In the event DOH has determined the fiscal intermediary has disseminated a false or misleading advertisement, or if an advertisement has been distributed without DOH approval, the fiscal intermediary has 30 days to discontinue use and/or remove such advertisement.  If DOH determines a fiscal intermediary has distributed two or more advertisements that are false or misleading or not previously approved by DOH, the entity will be prohibited from providing fiscal intermediary services and its authorization will be revoked, suspended or limited.  Additionally, DOH will maintain a list of these entities and will make this list available to local departments of social service, health maintenance organizations, accountable care organizations and performing provider systems.  These limitations apply to marketing contracts entered into after April 1, 2018.

Fiscal Intermediary Reporting.  The Enacted Budget allows the Commissioner of Health to require fiscal intermediaries to provide additional information regarding the direct care and administrative costs of personal assistance services.  DOH may determine the type and amount of information that will be required, as well as the regularity and design of the reports.  These cost reports must be certified by the owner, administrator, chief administrative officer or public official responsible for the operation of the provider.  The DOH must provide at least 90 days’ notice of this report deadline.  If DOH determines the cost report is not complete or inaccurate, it must notify the provider in writing and specify the correction needed or information required.  The provider will have 30 days to respond to DOH’s request for supplementary information.  In the event a provider cannot meet this filing deadline, DOH may provide an additional 30 day extension if the provider sends written notice prior to the report due date which details acceptable reasons beyond their control which justify their failure to meet the filing deadline.

Mainstream Managed Care and Health Homes

Quarterly Meetings on Medicaid Managed Care Rates.  In a side letter, the Executive has committed to providing quarterly updates to the Legislature regarding Medicaid managed care rates, including the actuarial memorandum which, pursuant to statute, is provided to managed care organizations 30 days in advance of submission to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).  This is intended to increase the transparency of Medicaid managed care rates.

Separate Rate Cells or Risk Adjustments for Specific Populations.  In a side letter, DOH has committed to exploring separate rate cells or risk adjustments for the nursing home, high cost/high need home and personal care, and Health and Recovery Plan (HARP) populations.  DOH will re-engage CMS regarding this reimbursement methodology with the assistance of health care industry stakeholders impacted by these changes (e.g. advocates, providers and managed care organizations).  This will hopefully lead to a fairer rate structure for plans serving higher-risk patients.

Health Homes Targets.  The Enacted Budget requires the Commissioner of Health to establish reasonable targets for health home participation by enrollees of special needs plans and other high risk enrollees of managed care plans to encourage plans and health homes to work collaboratively to achieve such targets.  The DOH was also empowered to assess penalties for failure to meet such participation targets where they believe such failure is due to absence of good faith and reasonable efforts.

Health Home Criminal History Checks.  The Enacted Budget requires criminal history checks for employees and subcontractors of health homes and any entity that provides community-based services to individuals with developmental disabilities or to individuals under 21 years old.

Health Home Reporting.  Similar to fiscal intermediaries (above) and LHCSAs (here), the Enacted Budget allows the Commissioner of Health to require health homes to report on the costs incurred to deliver health care services to Medicaid beneficiaries.

***

So that concludes our series on the 2018-19 New York State Healthcare Budget.  If you have any questions or would like additional information on any of the above referenced issues, or any of the other items covered (or not covered) in the series, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.

 

 

Small Issues with Big Impacts:  2018-19 NYS Hospital Budget Highlights

There are probably few in the healthcare community in New York State who would disagree that, among provider types, hospitals have typically received the most attention from policymakers.  The hospitals themselves might argue the point, or point out that having the attention of policymakers is not always a good thing (e.g., the attention on pharmaceutical manufacturers in this year’s budget, discussed here).  Payors might argue that they are more frequently the focus of policy efforts.  And of course, patient advocates would be quick to point out that the real focus of healthcare policy should be on patients (a principle with which no one disagrees, at least in theory).  But it is hard to argue against the contention that, more than any other provider, hospitals have been the focus of policy reform efforts since there was such a thing as healthcare policy.

With that in mind, one of the more interesting aspects of the 2018-19 New York State Enacted Budget is the relative lack of hospital-focused reform efforts.  To be sure, hospitals were, as always, a significant part of the debate, and several hospital reform initiatives were discussed that did not make it into the final budget agreement.  And, of course, the hospitals were a major force behind, and are expected to be major beneficiaries of, two huge funding pools established in the final agreement:  the third iteration of the Statewide Health Care Facility Transformation Program (discussed here) and the Health Care Transformation Fund being funded in connection with the acquisition of a New York-based payor (discussed here).  But beyond that, there are no huge system-wide reforms in the Enacted Budget that directly impact hospitals.

However, there are two relatively small items that are likely to have significant long-term impacts:  a series of provisions related to indigent care funding, and a new requirement regarding sexual assault kits.  Both are discussed below.

Indigent Care Funding:  DSH and ICP

2018 began with a great deal of uncertainty regarding the fate of New York’s safety net hospitals.  This uncertainty was fueled in part by wariness over potential cuts to Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) subsidies at the federal level, as well as sustained pressure from advocacy groups demanding changes in the state’s Indigent Care Pool (ICP) reimbursement methodology, which opponents claim inequitably favors large financially stable providers serving predominantly insured patients over hospitals that provide the greatest amount of charitable care to the neediest populations.  Thanks in part to a last-minute decision by the Federal Government not to cut DSH payments this year, the Enacted Budget largely maintains the status quo with respect to DSH payments and the ICP methodology – however, the Department of Health has agreed in a side letter with Senate Health Committee leadership to convene a working group on DSH reform.  The Enacted Budget also provides $100 million dollars in enhanced Medicaid payments to a specific subset of safety net hospitals.

Critics claim that the current ICP reimbursement methodology, which reimburses hospitals for charitable health spending through a combination of state surcharges on health insurance and a portion of federally funded Medicaid DSH dollars, has consistently failed to adequately reimburse the institutions which actually provide the most free care to the poorest populations.  Part of the reason for this imbalance is the formula used to calculate ICP distributions.  The ICP, and its prior iteration, the Hospital Bad Debt and Charity Care Pool, traditionally allowed hospitals to seek reimbursement for both “charity care” (free medical services provided to the poor) and “bad debt” (including unpaid copayments and deductibles of commercially insured patients).   Challengers of the current system claim that this results in some of the largest reimbursement payments going to the least charitable hospitals.

In 2013, and in response to provisions in the federal Affordable Care Act penalizing states that allowed DSH dollars to be used for the reimbursement of bad debt, the Legislature amended the ICP’s reimbursement formula to a “needs based calculation.”  However, the 2013 amendment also included a “transition adjustment”, which severely limited the amount each hospital’s grant could be increased or decreased from its pre-2013 levels – in its current version payments may not decrease by more than 2.5% year over year.   As noted in a September 2017 Report by the Empire Center, the transition adjustment has stymied the intended redistributive effect of the needs based formula, and “[t]here [remains] a negative correlation between the overall poverty of a hospital’s patients and the relative size of its indigent care grant.”

The Enacted Budget does not alter the current ICP or DSH frameworks, but rather extends the existing framework through March 31, 2020, and maintains previous funding rates through 2019 of: (a) $139,400,000 as Medicaid DSH payments to major public general hospitals; and, (b) $994,900,000 as Medicaid DSH payments to eligible general hospitals other than major public general hospitals.  Additionally, the Enacted Budget increases the cap on reductions in ICP payments for the calendar year beginning January 1, 2019 from the prior rate of 15% to 17.5%.  In a side letter agreement with Senate Health Committee Leaders, the Department of Health has agreed to establish a temporary workgroup on hospital indigent care methodology which will make recommendations regarding DSH and ICP funding.  The workgroup will convene no later than June 1, 2018 and create a report on its findings no later than December 1, 2018.

While the Enacted Budget does not tackle the larger issues plaguing the ICP methodology, it does provide for $100 million in enhanced Medicaid rate payments – which are administered outside of the ICP and DSH – to a newly-designated class of Enhanced Safety Net Hospitals (“ESNH”).  A hospital will qualify as ESNH if it falls into any of the following categories:

  1. It serves a high percentage of Medicaid and uninsured patients (specifically, in any of the last three years: (a) not less than 50% of the patients treated receive Medicaid or are medically uninsured; (b) not less than 40% of its inpatient discharges are covered by Medicaid; (c) 25% or less of its discharged patients are commercially insured; (d) not less than 3% of the patients it provides services to are attributed to the care of uninsured patients; and, (e) it provides care to uninsured patients in its emergency room, hospital based clinics and community based clinics including the provision of important community services such as dental care and prenatal care).
  2. It is a public hospital (operated by a county, municipality, public benefit corporation or the State University of New York).
  3. It is a federally-designated Critical Access Hospital (CAH).
  4. It is a federally-designated Sole Community Hospital (SCH).

Payments made under the ESNH program may be added to rates of payment or made as aggregate payments to eligible general hospitals.  The 2018-19 Enacted Budget appropriated $50 million under the ESNH program for high Medicaid/uninsured and public hospitals, and another $50 million for CAHs and SCHs.

It remains to be seen how the current ICP framework will hold up in the event that Federal DSH payments are cut at the federal level, whether the $100 million ESNH program will provide sufficient funds to shore up the state’s most vulnerable facilities, and what the indigent care workgroup will recommend for a more permanent solution.  But these various elements could ultimately result in a fundamental change in the way indigent care is reimbursed in New York State

Sexual Assault Kits

The Enacted Budget includes significant amendments surrounding the responsibilities of hospitals with respect to the collection and storage of sexual assault evidence.  Most significantly, beginning April 1, 2018, hospitals are responsible for ensuring that sexual offense evidence is kept locked and secure – refrigerated where necessary – until April 1, 2021.  After April 1, 2021 (or earlier if deemed feasible by the Director of the Budget), the evidence will be turned over to a state appointed custodian.  The state appointed custodian will be responsible for storing the evidence until twenty years from the date of its collection. The new provisions also spell out specific chain of custody requirements (marking and identification of evidence). Hospitals will have the option of entering into third-party contracts for the storage of sexual assault evidence off site between now and the appointment of a state custodian.  After April 2, 2021, new sexual assault evidence must be transferred to the state appointed custodian within ten days of collection.

The Enacted Budget further mandates that hospitals are responsible for ensuring sexual assault survivors are not billed for sexual assault forensic exams and are notified orally and in writing of the option to decline to provide private health insurance information and have the office of victim services reimburse the hospital for the exam. Nonetheless, a sexual assault survivor may voluntarily assign any private insurance benefits to the hospital, in which case the hospital may not charge the office of victim services for the exam, provided, however, that such health insurance coverage shall not be subject to annual deductibles or coinsurance or balance billing by the hospital.  Additional provisions in the Health Insurance Law clarify that such treatments shall not be subject to annual deductibles or coinsurance.

Alone, these changes in the manner in which hospitals handle and are paid for work with sexual assault victims do not seem to have the same kind of systemic impact as changes in the way indigent care is funded.  However, they represent the latest addition to the panoply of standards governing hospital record-keeping – and in an area that can have extremely significant consequences if a hospital fails to meet the applicable standard.  It is not hard to envision litigation resulting from the mishandling of evidence under the new statute, and the agreed upon need for a more permanent solution in 2021 promises additional regulation in this space in the future.

So in short, while both reforms are relatively small in the short term, they may have significant impacts in the long term.  Hospitals are faced with the choice of waiting to see what those impacts might be, working to adjust operations to anticipate those impacts, or actively engaging with the State to try to affect the outcome.  If you have any questions concerning either of those issues, or are interested in engaging with the State to impact them, please do not hesitate to contact Farrell Fritz’s Regulatory & Government Relations Practice Group at 518.313.1450 or NYSRGR@FarrellFritz.com.